Catch up on Part 1 of Considerations for the Aging Performance Horse first by clicking here.
Provide a safe, comfortable environment
Ensuring your aging has a well-bedded, sanitary space with adequate water and protection from rain, snow, direct sun, and biting insects will help keep them comfortable. Middle-age and senior horses may also become more sensitive to respiratory irritants such as mold, fungus, dust, and pollen. As a result, it is recommended that barn and stall cleaning is done while the horse is in turnout or being ridden so they do not breathe in dust stirred up during cleaning. Minimizing their exposure to these irritants by maintaining a clean and well-ventilated stable will go a long way in keeping an older horse healthy.
Like all athletes, horses can experience physical setbacks and are not always so quick to bounce back as they age. Osteoarthritis and laminitis are two common medical conditions that become more prevalent with age. It is important for the middle-age and senior performance horse to be managed with proper veterinary care, farriery, and a suitable training program.
Routine performance evaluations by a veterinarian are a useful tool in detecting subtle changes in a horse’s gait and movement before issues become injuries. A veterinarian will be able to suggest the appropriate treatment, such as anti-inflammatories, joint injections, biologic therapies, or alternative medicines, to maintain and even increase the horse’s flexibility, range of motion, balance, and ease any discomfort. Many owners begin consulting their veterinarian on regenerative and alternative therapies well before their horse has reached senior years as these therapies may help to support longevity in performance and better health for the horse’s organ and musculoskeletal systems.
Pay attention to changes in behavior and contact your veterinarian
Changes in the horse’s behavior or energy level, even minor or seemingly unimportant changes, can be indicators of underlying issues or disease. Exercise intolerance, poor coat condition, weight loss, stiffness, dropping feed, or changes in how much water they drink can be signs that something may be going on and should be communicated to your veterinarian. The sooner issues are identified, the sooner the horse can receive the right care and ultimately ward off serious illnesses.
Periodic preventative care checkups, performed at least bi-annually, can be key to catching many age-related conditions and diseases that owners may not notice in their everyday care due to a gradual onset. Involving your veterinarian in the management of your senior horse will go a long way toward ensuring their health and happiness throughout their golden years. Reach out to your Palm Beach Equine Clinic veterinarian for any questions about your horse’s health at any age by calling 561-793-1599 to schedule an appointment.
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One of the world’s premier veterinary facilities, Palm Beach Equine Clinic (PBEC), has signed on to support M & R Equestrian’s Training Days as a sponsor of the pioneering event operating at Jim Brandon Equestrian Center in West Palm Beach, FL.
Founded by Olympic veterans Alberto Michan (ISR) and Juan Andrés Rodriguez (GUA), M & R Equestrian’s Training Days are held weekly from November through April, and offer riders of all levels the opportunity to school over a full course of show-quality jumps set by FEI course designers. Every Tuesday, three arenas—two jumper rings and an arena with hunter courses—are available and set at varying heights throughout the day to accommodate horses and riders of all ages and levels. Training Days were created as a means to prepare young horses for the show ring, scout up-and-coming sale prospects, practice horse show elements like open water jumps, and to enjoy a relaxing, confidence-building experience for an affordable price.
“Palm Beach Equine Clinic is proud to play a role in supporting the equestrian community in our area and around the globe. This training series is another tool that riders can take advantage of to prepare their horses for competing on the main stage, and our veterinary team is here to support the equine athletes in that pursuit. A few of our team members may even be spotted riding their own horses there throughout the series.”
PBEC President Dr. Scott Swerdlin
Dedicated to caring for equine patients
PBEC’s mission is to provide exceptional veterinary care for the horse and the team is committed to strengthening their relationship with clients and the community. Established in 1981, PBEC has earned a reputation across the nation and around the globe for providing the highest quality of healthcare for all horses, from Olympic caliber athletes to pasture pets. With over 35 distinguished veterinarians and a robust team of technicians, surgical, pharmacy, and hospital staff, PBEC is able to care for equine patients 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.
Participate in M & R Equestrian Training Days
M & R Equestrian Training Days will expand to a two-day schedule for 12 weeks beginning in January 2021, with Mondays featuring a one-of-a-kind opportunity to school under the lights during the evening. Each entry awards a horse and rider combination two minutes and 30 seconds in the arena, allowing them to jump as many fences or courses as they’d like while providing the perfect horse show dress rehearsal. For more information about M & R Equestrian’s Training Days, including updated weekly schedules and timing, find them on Facebook and Instagram.
From a veterinary perspective, horses can be considered “middle-aged” by 13 years of age, and “seniors” by 20 years of age. Although many sport horses may just be coming into their prime for training and competing during these years, horses show signs of aging at different rates just like humans do. As horses age some physiological functions start to decline, and they require extra care to maintain their overall health and condition.
Advances in diagnostics, therapies, and medications can help to support equine athletes and keep them performing well into their golden years. While many of the same health factors apply to horses of all ages, several additional and significant concerns should be considered for the aging horse.
Meet your horse’s nutritional needs
Aging impacts a horse’s ability to digest and utilize the nutrients in its feed as well as its ability to maintain weight and muscle mass. Senior horses require a diet that is highly digestible, palatable, and has an amino acid profile that will maintain muscle mass. As diet is one of the most crucial facets of a horse’s care, owners can consult their veterinarian to make sure they are fueling their aging horse with an adequate ratio and amount of high quality of forage, grains, vitamins, and minerals.
“When it comes to the best nutrition for senior horses, access to high-quality forage is very important and some horses may need free-choice quality hay to maintain optimum health,” said Dr. Marilyn Connor of Palm Beach Equine Clinic. “There are many commercially available feeds labeled as “senior” that are formulated to meet the dietary needs of the middle age to senior horse. These feed products are often beneficial to all adult horses as they are processed to be nutrient dense and highly digestible.”
There are many additional factors that go hand-in-hand with feeding a senior horse, such as minimizing the risks of colic and ensuring the best dental health. A veterinarian will be able to advise the owner if their senior’s diet is meeting the horse’s needs and setting them up for success in the years to come.
Be mindful of dental health
The digestion process begins in the mouth, so maintaining good dental health is imperative. Equine teeth, unlike human or a small animal teeth, will continue to grow throughout the horse’s life. An annual dental exam by a veterinarian will go far in preventing and fixing sharp points, hooks, chipped or fractured teeth, or damage to soft tissue within the mouth.
“In geriatric horses, the teeth are no longer erupting as quickly and as a result they may not develop sharp points as quickly. With age however, the teeth wear which causes the crown to thin and roots to shorten. As this happens, the teeth are more prone to damage and fracture. Regular dental exams – at least on an annual basis – will catch these potential issues sooner than if allowed to become problematic.”
“Another condition more common in geriatric horses is Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis (EOTRH). This condition affects the incisors and occasionally the canine teeth and can be very painful. Often times, EOTRH can be recognized as irritability, head shyness, or if the horse struggles to bite treats like carrots. We can make a definitive diagnosis of this through taking radiographs,” continued Dr. Davis.
Monitor internal health
Older horses are more prone to developing endocrine diseases such as Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) or Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction (PPID or Cushing’s disease). These diseases can lead to progressive deterioration of healthy tissue and have major negative effects on almost every bodily system in the horse. A horse with unmanaged PPID is more likely to experience episodes of laminitis, chronic infections, anhidrosis, and infertility, as well as career-ending soft tissue injuries. Research indicates that between 20 to 30 percent of horses over the age of 13 have PPID, many with no clinical signs making the disease go unnoticed.
“I recommend that all my patients over the age of 13 start annual endocrine metabolic testing to look for early changes associated with PPID or EMS. Horses can start to develop these diseases at as early as seven-years-old. I think it is critical to be proactive in the middle-age and senior horse so we can start treatments to correct the hormone imbalances before they begin to cause long term damage or the horse sustains an injury that might have otherwise been avoided.”
Routine blood tests, such as a Complete Blood Count (CBC) or Serum Chemistry analysis are useful in identifying changes to the horse’s red and white blood cell counts (to see if they may be anemic) and to assess internal organ function. Having your horse tested every six to 12 months will be helpful for tracking and detecting any changes in their health and implementing treatment early on.
Immune system function also gradually declines with age, making middle-age and senior horses more susceptible to illnesses. It is important for owners to stay vigilant and up to date on their horse’s core vaccines, and to consult their veterinarian about timing and frequency of boosters to make sure their horse is protected.
Palm Beach Equine Clinic also recommends routine fecal testing to evaluate the horse’s internal parasite count and implementing a consistent deworming program. This is imperative for clients based in Florida year-round due to the lack of frost which usually kills many parasite eggs in northern climates. Fecal egg count testing should be performed twice per year, in the spring and fall, to assess parasite load in the intestines. It is important to note that not all parasites are susceptible to every deworming product, and the results of a fecal test will give the veterinarian insights as to the type of parasites and which dewormer is best to administer for that unique horse. Palm Beach Equine Clinic veterinarians have access to the laboratory equipment onsite to run the vast majority of these tests for rapid same day results.